What is Biodiversity ?
Biodiversity is the short form of two words «biological» and «diversity». It refers to the entire variety of life that can be found on Earth (plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms), as well as the communities they form and the habitats they live in. Biodiversity is the diversity of species, genetics and ecosystems.
Biodiversity is not just the sum of all ecosystems, species and genetic material. Rather, it represents the variability within and among them. Biological diversity is often understood at three levels:
- Species diversity refers to the variety of different species;
- Genetic diversity corresponds to the variety of genes contained in plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms;
- Ecosystem diversity refers to all the different habitats that exist, such as tropical or temperate forests, cold and hot deserts, wetlands, rivers, mountains, coral reefs, etc.
The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly known as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems of the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are part of a biologically diverse Earth.
Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies seek to recognize this as an integral part of any approach to preserving biodiversity. Almost every culture has its roots in our biological diversity in some form or other.
Why Is Biodiversity Important ?
- Biodiversity increases ecosystem productivity where every species, no matter how small, has an important role to play.
- A greater number of plant species means a greater variety of crops.
- A greater diversity of species ensures the natural sustainability of all forms of life.
- Healthy ecosystems can better resist and recover from a variety of disasters.
- And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity of wildlife.
Biodiversity loss is not just the extinction of species. Initially, biodiversity loss could be defined as the extinction of species. Interestingly, the species richness of a particular ecosystem can hardly change or even increase because new species, often widespread, replace the original ones. Therefore, it is important not only to look at the species, but also at the abundance (number of individuals) of the species. Species extinction is only a last step in a long process of degradation
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