It is a metal resulting from an alloy of iron and carbon, among other elements. It is high tensile strength and low cost, is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, automobiles, boats, machines, appliances, weapons and multiple areas.
The density of steel varies depending on the alloy components, but generally ranges from 7,750 to 8,050 kg / m3(484 and 503 lb / cubic feet), or 7,75 to 8,05 g / cm3(4,48 and 4,65 oz / cubic inches). It is calculated by dividing the mass by volume.
The properties to be taken into account when specifying steel construction products are as follows
It is a property that indicates the resistance of a material to breakage, cutting, scratching or other forms of abrasion. Generally, the harder a material is, the greater its strength.
By absorbing the stress and pressure of a sudden impact or load, in the case of Steel it tends to improve with increasing temperature.
All steels are essentially weldable, however, welding involves the application of steel locally for melting, which is then cooled and this cooling can be rapid due to the surrounding material and its willingness to dissipate heat.
If the weld is small there is little material and induced heat needed for melting, but this can cause a hardening of the heat-affected area and a reduction in toughness.
Also depends on the elements of the alloy the susceptibility it has to brittleness, in effect, but has its variants depending on the carbon content.
The type and degree of protection of the required coating depends on the degree of exposure, location, service life of the design, load, etc. Although special corrosion-resistant steels are available, they are not frequently used in building construction and other applications.
Some of the most commonly used measures to prevent the effect of rust corrosion on Steel are painting or galvanizing.
This property determines the degree to which a material can be deformed or elongated between the start of performance and the subsequent fracture due to the tensile load exerted on it.
Taking into account the ductility of a material is very important for the design, for several aspects to take into consideration as they are:
- the distribution of stress in the limit state of the material
- reduce the spread of fatigue cracking
- bending and straightening
- in welding manufacturing processes
Performance strength is the most common property to be used by the designer because it is the basis of almost all rules given in design codes.
Product standards will also determine the permitted range of values for maximum tensile strength.
Definition or Meaning of Steel
That is steel or has some characteristic that is considered proper of steel, also that is strong or resilient as steel.
A steel wire is a kind of mechanical cable formed by a set of steel wires or iron wires that form a single body as a working element. These wires can be wound helically in one or several layers, usually around a central wire, forming spiral cables.
This type of cable can be wound helically around a core or soul. These cables can be considered as elements and form guard cables. They can also be coupled side by side to form flat cables.
The wire is a unique electric conductor whose conductive soul is constituted by a single element or conductive wire, the steel wires are very resistant and easy to work with them. It can be adapted to any shape you want and some of these steel wires are glazed.
Steel nails are used in countless applications, but not all nails are suitable for all jobs. It is very important to select the right nail for the job at hand.
Learn how to choose the right nail.
It can also be said that a nail is a thin piece used to hold or fix two or more pieces. Its length varies, its size and style, from small studs to heavy nails. Commonly, a nail has three main parts: the tip, the shaft or body and the head. At present this piece of construction is made of steel wire.
How to weld steel wire?
The most ideal would be a MIG machine but if you do not have this type of machine, with a common arc welder and fine electrode you will be able to weld the wire in the way you need.
The consumption of a welding machine either arc or MIG depends on its point of intensity of operation. However with 2 mm² electrodes and a well calibrated arc machine will be sufficient to achieve the required work.
How to Drill Steel Metal?
Steel is a very useful product. Valued in part for how it looks, its great hardness, duration, utility, among other aspects. It can be purely functional or decorative. It is an alloy of iron and carbon.
Many common uses of steel are found in household appliances and decorative items, but also very useful in many industries, such as transport, chemical and petrochemical industry and of course in architecture.
You can give it any shape and it is manufactured for a number of uses but it is important to know how to pierce it in order to achieve a proper use and meet the requirements needed.
Perforating steel metal is essential:
- The right equipment, quality tools, such as drills, will make the difference in this process because of the great difficulty involved and the price of the steel itself.
- It uses protective equipment to safeguard against the production of pieces of steel and metal shavings that jump through the air when drilling.
- Fix steel on a flat, well-lit surface with specialized plastic handles or fasteners.
- Carefully measure the place where you are going to drill by marking a point as the target of the place to drill.
- You can make the mark on the steel with a permanent marker. You can frame the site with masking tape to maintain concentration and protect the area adjacent to it. You can then proceed to drill the site with the appropriate drill bit to get the desired hole.
How to Cut Steel Wire?
To cut steel cables you need tools such as pliers but or specialized scissors for this job, an example of these tools is as follows:
- KNIPEX Steel Cable Cutter for Steel Sheathed Cables (SWA Cables)
- Provides a clean, smooth cut without crushing the cable.
- It has a harder cutting edge adjusted to the steel sheathing of the cables.
- To cut cables with this tool, follow these steps:
- The first thing to do is to open the locking plate and then pull out the entire handle, this tool has a special hardened cutting edge ideal for cutting steel.
- After the blocking plate has been opened, the cut is made.
- The cut must be made using the proven ratchet principle.
- This tool reduces the effort by driving the three-gear sprocket. Cutting can be made easier by the stable support surface.
As well as this tool there are many others that can be useful when cutting steel cables. Another method of cutting could be with a roughing blade that has the ability to cut faster than a pliers or scissors.
How to Fold Steel Wire?
There are many ways to bend a piece of wire can be achieved through specialized machines, with pliers to serve as support and even with the hands that for them would need gloves to protect the hands this can be done in some cases when the wire is very thin.
You can also use more rustic methods either invented by you or also by means of some machine manufactured at home by yourself.
The main component of steel is iron and the alloy between it and some other materials such as carbon, chromium, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, sulphur, among others.
The different variations in its composition are responsible for the different types of steel grades.
With a quantity of carbon variable between 0.03 % and 2.14 % by mass of its composition.
Depending on its temperature, it also has different constituents from lower to higher hardness, specifically: perlite, ferrite and cementite. Steel is composed of iron and other elements such as carbon, manganese, phosphorus, nickel, sulphur, chromium and other elements. Variations in its composition give way to a wide variety of steel grades and steel properties. Iron is its basic component. When carbon, a non-metallic, is added to iron in amounts of more than 2.1% the result is an alloy known as steel.
Each element that is added to the basic composition of the steel has some effect on the properties of the steel. These additions and variations in steel composition are responsible for a wide variety of steel grades and steel properties. For example, a suitable steel composition provides improved strength and an opportunity to use cost-effective heat treatment methods.
The chemical composition of steel is very important for the quality of the galvanised coating, as a metallurgical reaction between zinc and iron is taking place. As an example, silicon contents in steel between 0.05% – 0.11% and above 0.25% will cause zinc-iron alloy layers to grow abnormally fast.
In fact, silicon causes the galvanizing reaction to continue without decreasing and the outermost layer of pure zinc is eventually consumed in the process. This not only makes the coating thicker than normal, but it is also more likely to be composed entirely of alloy layers. The increased presence of these alloy layers in the resulting coating is often brittle and appears as a dark grey matte finish.
There are several ways to classify Steel, this will depend on its alloy with other elements, mechanical properties, physical-chemical properties, among other criteria used for its classification, it also depends on the country where the categorization is being handled.
The following is a classification made taking into account several aspects to highlight:
According to the Way of Work
- Laminated Steel
- Forged Steel
- Moulded steel
According to Structure and Composition
- Alloyed or Special steels
- Ordinary steel
- Special steels or alloys are made of materials other than carbon, which change their properties and are classified according to their influence:
- Elements that increase hardness such as aluminum, nickel, phosphorus, copper, among others that provide greater hardness such as vanadium, molybdenum, titanium, wolfram, cobalt, manganese and chrome.
- Elements that change the critical transformation temperatures:
- Those that lower the critical points: copper, nickel and manganese.
- Those that raise the critical points: Aluminum, vanadium, silicon, tungsten and molybdenum.
- Chromium increases the critical points if the carbon content is high and decreases if the carbon content is low.
Elements that change their resistance to Corrosion or Rust:
- Corrosion Resistance: Chromium
- Oxidation Resistance: Wolfram and Molybdenum
- Elements that limit the increase in grain size: Aluminium, Titanium and Vanadium
- Elements that determine hardenability:
- Increases hardenability: manganese, molybdenum, chromium, nickel and silicon.
- Reduces hardenability: cobalt.
According to its Uses
- Quick Cut Steel
- Cutting Steel
- Self-tempering steel
- Steel for Magnets or Magnets
- Construction Steel
- Non-deformable steel
- Stainless Steel
- Spring Steel
- Tool steel
- Refractory Steel
- Bearing steel
The first uses of steel included tools, weapons, and kitchen utensils as steel retained its edge and shape. Steel covers almost all industries and has large areas of application and functionality.
These are just some of the areas in which it plays a leading role:
Industries in General
Kitchen and Utensils
Tools and Parts
Food processing equipment
Valves, among others.
How to Calculate Steel Density with a Practical Example Video
Density of Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is a material of high resistance to corrosion that can be used structurally, manual instruments, utensils, among others. Especially where a high quality surface finish and resistance to rust is required.
Its Density is between 7.8 g / cm 3 and 8.03 g / cm3
Stainless steels are selected primarily for their corrosion resistance. They have been used for almost 100 years in which durability, appearance and cleanliness are important. They can be found in homes, prestigious buildings, transportation, food and beverage handling, chemical plants and medical equipment with a density of 0.0078.
Density of 304 Stainless Steel
Grade 304 stainless steel is generally considered to be the most common austenitic stainless steel. It contains a high nickel content that is typically between 8 and 10.5 weight percent and a high amount of chromium at approximately 18 to 20 weight percent.
Other important alloying elements include manganese, silicon and carbon. The rest of the chemical composition is mainly iron. Its density is 8.03.
The most popular austenitic stainless is type 304, which basically contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel, with a carbon content that is limited to a maximum of 0.08%.
It is linked to a large application in the chemical, pharmaceutical, alcohol, aeronautical, naval, architectural, food, and transport industries.
Other uses in cutlery, crockery, sinks, elevator coatings and in a number of applications that you can find.
Density of Stainless Steel in Kg/m3
Stainless steels are ferro-chrome alloys with a minimum of 11% chromium.
When other elements are included in the alloy they can form a wide range of materials, which are better known as the stainless steel family.
There are two that stand out among the elements of the alloy: chromium, which is an element that is present in all stainless steels for its ability to resist corrosion and nickel, due to the memory in the mechanical properties that is exerted.
The density of steel varies according to the components of the alloy, generally ranging between 7,750 and 8,050 kg / m 3. The average density of steel is 7850Kg/m3.
Density of Black Steel
It is commonly known as the basic steel, i.e. the normal, ordinary iron that comes directly out of the casting process. This type of steel has not passed a treatment process.
It can also be said that it is a flat product obtained by rolling steel slabs that are previously heated to an average temperature of 1250 º C, this steel is suitable for roughing processes and for conderable deformations.
There are different types of black steels, which are defined by their carbon composition and hardness, creating different qualities in black steel.
The table of gauges is a way of measuring the thickness of a steel sheet, either Polished Iron (HP) or Black Iron (HN), taking into account the density of the steel of 7.85 gr / cm3. It is generally a universal form that is used in the world of steel and construction.
This type of steel is used for the manufacture of pipes. One of the characteristics of black steel or black iron pipes is that when they come into contact with air they begin to oxidize, covering themselves with a very characteristic dark brown film. The most recommendable way to avoid this is to add protection to the pipe.
Due to this event, black steel pipes cannot be used for drinking water pipes but their use is more linked to the industrial sector.
At the moment of being submitted to a circulation of water, that is to say, to a humid environment, the first compound that is formed is the ferrous hydroxide, which is respectively soluble, later is transformed into ferric oxide, which is less healthy and helps to the circulation of the water.
Carbon Steel Density
When alloyed iron is mixed with carbon, this is called carbon steel, where alloyed steel is a type of steel to which other alloy elements have intentionally adhered for the modification of the characteristics of the steel and its density is 7.84 g / cm 3.
An important part of this type of steel produced goes to the construction of structures. Within this category can be determined two main uses: reinforced concrete and steel construction.
In the first one, the round iron is used as reinforcement of the concrete, the first one working to generate by traction and the second compression. In the case of steel construction1 elements are used as profiles joined by bolted or welded connections between them.
A use that is becoming famous and important is the mixed construction2 which combines steel structures embedded in reinforced concrete or reinforced concrete within a structural pipe.
Carbon steels have a complex chemical composition, in addition to iron and carbon which generally does not exceed 1%, there are other elements in the alloy necessary for its production, such as silicon and manganese, and there are others that are considered impurities because of the difficulty of excluding them completely – sulphur, phosphorus, oxygen, hydrogen.
The increase of the carbon content in the steel elevates its resistance to traction, also increases the index of cold fragility and causes the decrease of toughness and ductility.
Density of Rolled Steel
It is a special steel adapted to produce specific magnetic properties: small area hysteresis resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability. Its density is 0.0078.
This type of steel is used in many construction industries, which is part of the structures of a building to provide the necessary support and thus resist the weight of the materials, the people who will live there, the passage of time and also natural disasters that may occur.
Steel Density S275
Known as a common carbon structural steel which has a minimum tensile strength of 36 ksi, it is very similar to ASTM A36 in both chemical and physical properties.
This S275 steel sheet can be bolted, riveted and welded into a full range of construction and fabrication including bridges and other general structural projects in this field.
It is also an iron alloy that has small amounts of carbon adhered to it, making it very hard and strong. Widely used today to make metal structures such as: warehouses, buildings, warehouses … the density of steel S275 is 7850 kg/m3.
Steel density in g /cm3
Varies according to alloy components, but generally ranges from 7.75 to 8.05 g / cm 3. The average density of steel is 7.85g/cm3.
Steel Density Kg/mm3
Applying the steel density cover from kg/m³ to kg / mm3 the result is as follows:
7.85 kg / m3 = 7.85E-9 kg / mm3
Steel Density 4140
This is one of the low alloy steels of chromium, molybdenum, manganese, which stand out for their toughness, good torsional strength and good fatigue strength.
4140 is used in a tremendous variety of applications, too numerous to mention here.
As with all low alloy steels, forming can be done by conventional methods with the alloy in the annealed state. These alloys have good ductility, but are more resistant than carbon steel and therefore generally require more force or pressure to form them.
4140 can be forged at 2200 F to 1700 F and its density (lb / cu. in.) 0.28.
AISI 4140 alloy steel has good machinability in the annealed state.
Alloy steel AISI 4140 is heated to 845°C (1550°F) followed by oil cooling. Prior to hardening, it can be normalized by heating to 913°C (1675°F) for a long period of time followed by air cooling.
Alloy steel AISI 4140 can be welded using all conventional techniques. However, the mechanical properties of this steel will be affected if it is welded in the heat treatment condition, and a post-welding heat treatment must be performed.
It is a silvery metal, very light, resistant to oxidation and is very good conductor, This metal is widely used in many areas and industries, is a chemical element of symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Its Density is 2.700 kg / m3
It is a soft, malleable, ductile metal, with an electrical and thermal conductivity quite high, is presented in the table of chemical elements with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29, has antimicrobial action due to its biostatic condition, has great use in the electrical industry, marine, architecture and electronics.
Its Density is: 8.96 g / cm3.
This material used in the construction, is a composition of an agglomerant that in most cases is the cement, some aggregates that can be: sand, gravel or gravel and water, and in some cases some specific additives.
Its Density is: 2.3 g/cm3
Relative Density of Steel
One of the physical properties of steel and of great importance in its functionality is its density, which is the unit of weight of any material expressed in pounds per inch, grams per cm, etc., at some reference temperature that is usually 20 º C.
It is difficult to establish the physical and mechanical properties of steel due to the fact that they vary according to the adjustments in its composition and the diverse thermal, chemical or mechanical treatments, with which steels can be obtained with combinations of suitable characteristics for an infinite number of applications, for this it is necessary to know their properties and the usefulness of all of them.
Referring properly to the steel it can be said that its average density is 7850 kg/m³. Nevertheless the steel can change of density when the type of alloy changes with another element besides the main ones that are the iron and the carbon, an example of this is the stainless steel that has a density of 7980 kg/m³ in comparison of the pure steel which is not affected to some modification.
What is the Melting Point of Steel?
That depends on the steel alloy you are talking about. The term alloy is almost always used incorrectly these days, especially among cyclists. They use the term to mean aluminum.
What the term alloy really means is a mixture of metals, any type of metal. Almost all the metal used today is a mixture and therefore an alloy.
Most steel has other metals added to adjust its properties, such as strength, corrosion resistance or ease of fabrication.
Steel is only the iron element that has been processed to control the amount of carbon. Iron, out of the ground, melts at about 1510 degrees C (2750 ° F). Steel often melts at around 1370 degrees C (2500 ° F).
Variations in Steel Density
The weight density of pure iron is 7.90 g/m³ at 20ºC. On the other hand, the density and weight of galvanized steel wire with a small zinc coating of class A is 7.83 g/m³ at 20ºC with an equal coating but of class B 7.80 g/m³ and with a coating of class C 7.78 g/m³.
There are also other types of densities where the steel is part of the element and the properties of each metal, an example of this is aluminum.
How to Calculate the Density of Steel ?
For example if you want to calculate how much a steel plate of 40 square meters and a thickness of 2.5 inches weighs, how to do it without having to weigh it in a scale, due to its size, only with its specific weight.
The density of the steel is 7.850 kg / m3, If you want to calculate the weight of that plate, you must apply…
Weight = Specific weight x Volume
Specific weight = density x gravity
Specific gravity = 7850 kg / m3 x 9.8 m / s2
Specific gravity = 76.930 N / m3
Volume= 40 m2 x Thickness. Thickness = 2.5 in. x 0.0254 m / in. = 0.0635 m
V = 40 m2 x 0.0635 m = 2.54 m3. Therefore, the weight of that plate is…
Weight = 76.930 N / m3 * 2,54 m3 = 195.402,2 Newton. The mass of the plate is…
Mass = density x Volume
Mass = 7850 kg / m3 x 2.54 m3. Mass = 19,939 kg.
Other Forms of Steel Density
Steel Density in Pounds per Inches
Steel Density per Linear Meter
Steel Density per Cubic Meter
Steel Density by Diameter
Steel Density in Pounds per Cubic Foot
Steel Density in Pounds per Gallon
Other Topics of Interest in ALPHAPEDIA
Steel Density Images